Chapter 16. �\ |�# endobj People with Down syndrome typically exhibit a distinctive pattern of physical features, including a flat nose, upwardly slanted eyes, a protruding tongue, and a short neck. On the cognitive side, individuals who are experiencing stereotype threat show an increased vigilance toward the environment as well as increased attempts to suppress stereotypic thoughts. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 29–46. endstream This collection provides a comprehensive up-to-date synthesis of some of the most significant publications in the psychology of individual differences field over the past two decades. Selden, S. (1999). Spelke, E. S. (2005). In the inspection-time task, a person looks at two vertical lines of unequal length and is asked to identify which of the two is longer. �!>� <> For example, white men perform more poorly on a math test when they are told that their performance will be compared with that of Asian men (Aronson, Lustina, Good, Keough, & Steele, 1999), and whites perform more poorly than blacks on a sport-related task when it is described to them as measuring their natural athletic ability (Stone, 2002; Stone, Lynch, Sjomeling, & Darley, 1999). 1.2 The Evolution of Psychology: History, Approaches, and Questions, 7. Why or why not? endstream This study classifies individuals by age, traits, sex, race, social class and so on, and observes the differences within and between those groups. Unfortunately, factors that seem unrelated to intelligence can have a great effect. Terman’s study also found that many of these students went on to achieve high levels of education and entered prestigious professions, including medicine, law, and science. assessed. Retrieved from–FINAL%2020%20June%202013.pdf, Reich, D. (2018, March 23). Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1995). Baral, B. D., & Das, J. P. (2004). stream �\ � S 13.1 Conception and Prenatal Development, 64. 3.6 Genes and Environments: Nature and Nurture, 19. Individual differences in intelligence can come from sources that at first seem innocuous. Everyday low prices and free delivery on … McIntyre, R. B., Paulson, R. M., & Lord, C. G. (2003). While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes intelligence.Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability. The brilliant but controversial figure of Hans Eysenck sparked polarising debates over questions such as the heritability of intelligence, the educational prospects of those low in ‘IQ’, and the reduction of personality to neural circuits. Although some people are naturally taller than others, since height is heritable, people who get plenty of nutritious food are taller than people who do not, and this difference is clearly due to environment. 4.2 Altering Consciousness With Psychoactive Drugs, 21. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Do you think that we should give intelligence tests? Inheriting shame: The story of eugenics and racism in America. � �!>� � ��� ����F� ÛE�Rƒ+p��r�t� LV��5BH�4Z�'fS$-#=BX�����|��X���*����� J0 These are: (a) The […] Yet, this variability is the very essence of correlational or differential psychology. Sex differences in intelligence allow us to make statements only about average differences and do not say much about any individual person. Sex differences in cognitive abilities (2nd ed.). <> <> .� Extremely intelligent individuals are not unhealthy or poorly adjusted, but rather are above average in physical health and taller and heavier than individuals in the general population. stream Social Cognition, 21(3), 167–193. 20 0 obj Stone, J., Lynch, C. I., Sjomeling, M., & Darley, J. M. (1999). Brown, R., Croizet, J.-C., Bohner, G., Fournet, M., & Payne, A. School achievement: Asia and Europe top in world, but reasons are hard to find. .� Stereotype threat is not, however, absolute; we can get past it if we try. Johns, M., Schmader, T., & Martens, A. Seagoe, M. V. (1975). 4.1 Sleeping and Dreaming Revitalize Us for Action, 20. Characteristics that define individual differences can be classified into four main categories: Learning Style, Aptitude, Personality and Emotional Intelligence. In S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds. �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ In D. Kuhn, R. S. Siegler, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds. x���qR�N���^���ޤz��'�=��IjO�o���00���.�!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"��M�K�m6�v~���島�a[Ƕ�r]=������õ��&B!���Da"���E�}�km@�N�n�g���Vͪ��FR`$�0B�!L�&B!��2E�s2`̣(귪�~��7+��2B�!L�&B!���Da� Oi4#7�i�f��T���r1#!���Da"�0B�!��%Z\ze�Mm��>#!���Da"�0B�!l�)��|��n����1_-�2B�!L�&B!���Sq�S-f>� ��蹊3E�!L�&B!����NQ\��&���W�����YFB!���Da"�0B��'z�vJ�1���=����G��#!���Da"�0B�!l�=5����Ys -��bڠ���O2-������2B�!L�&B!���DaWy(S=jqtO���kt0��/����9�2B�!L�&B!���F����]�km@���-�����6dz�#��Ha"�0B�!L�&B��k�g�z�k�ݮH�xN��+GQ��!���Da"�0BX`��~�����j�۽�=��������O�&B!���Da�_���a�׵\����yy�F��dO?u��EFB!���Da"�0B�(S��] PART 3 Applications in Individual Differences. <> The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) released its Education at a Glance 2013 report where Canada ranked first among 34 OECD countries with adults who had attained a tertiary (i.e., post-secondary) education, reporting 51% of 25- to 64-year-olds in Canada attained a post-secondary education in 2011 (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2013). Definitions of individual differences point out the reality of traits that distinguish individuals. �\ |�% Next: 9.3 Communicating With Others: Development and Use of Language, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Stereotype lift. endstream �z@� �0& 25 0 obj endobj In fact, just knowing that stereotype threat exists and may influence our performance can help alleviate its negative impact (Johns, Schmader, & Martens, 2005). This is a reminder that group differences may be created by environmental variables but can also be reduced through appropriate environmental actions such as educational and training programs. A meta-analytic review of sex differences in facial expression processing and their development in infants, children, and adolescents. Psychometric theories derive from studying individual differences in test performance on cognitive tests. Although these differences are real, and can be important, keep in mind that like virtually all sex-group differences, the average difference between men and women is small compared with the average differences within each sex (Lynn & Irwing, 2004). 34 0 obj �z@� �0& 15.2 Insanity: A History of Mental Illness, 82. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(1), 83–90. �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ There is a wide gap in the behaviors of educated and uneducated persons. Does it matter to you whether or not the tests have been standardized and shown to be reliable and valid? 22 0 obj ,++++++p:������8� Psychological Bulletin, 126(3), 424–453. Differences between men and women may be in part genetically determined, perhaps by differences in brain lateralization or by hormones (Kimura & Hampson, 1994; Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995), but nurture is also likely important (Newcombe & Huttenlocher, 2006). <> Chapter 3. .� Of the sample, 7% earned doctoral degrees, 4% earned medical degrees, and 6% earned law degrees. �z@� �0& Meaning of Individual Differences 6. “The psychology of individual differences is largely the study of group differences. <> A critical review. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� �^���S/wE߂u !L�&B!���Da�OQt��¬������˿|��R�r٦(�F��Da"�0B�!L��q.3k�㛮�P��s�=/S3#!���Da"�0B�!,p(S���+:���H�W��9s3+>q�.#!���Da"�0B�!�*϶Vi̭���Y��njy �P`$�0B�!L�&B!�N�4��^��a��vy��6���C|:��F߂� !L�&B!���Da����C^�b�̺�i��Y��qb�>>B�!L�&B!��r�1-���C�FG�4:��ԟ�j�n !L�&B!���Da�Eq֮��ߪn��0�Y=����&B!���Da"�0BX�P���bu;�Z��M�~�1'*�k��Z���Da"�0B�!L�6��ֺ�ߓ^���yL�!Zݴ�8�_�����!���Da"�0BX�lkqcE��1��v�F����bjf�Ha"�0B�!L�&B�0� h���N�t���)�g�Q��Da"�0B�!L�6�E����GQ�8��5��4ݜ5qr�#��Ha"�0B�!L�&B3Eq�t;QR������|]�ӂ�\6�(B�!L�&B!���8��(�J�ɀ1/�DO��Da"�0B�!L�&Be�p� 8k�0~�n��='��/���&B!���Da"���E\�S}]�)̮�tu����f>��&B!���Da"���S����&B!���Da"�0B�!L�&B!���Da"�0B�!L������˗/�?�l6���߿��������U�`��e-���>==��R�as�E�f���{����,���k�J9�H�[[�������[��o��M�3�Q�|\�}yy����ļ������*K�}�V>SF�2����|7���[Zn޽��Pn���Zf���U���Ǹ��*�|�{X�tz��{9�,����!��r�t�������� ���@��L�����u��ip;����ͳ"��ʔ�Mc鱟�B��L�ر�.X���y����c.|;z�άK�=�\e�]���M�Di�$���67ղ���ZK�����{"��SﮅzN���4�p�+�nz�f������c����W����fS��M<<<�4�QLw���O���jXS����w�i�Y���,������h���H�}ݛ:}f���/��f�f����/f L�&B�i��� endobj Personality and Individual Differences is primarily devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, correlational, theoretical, expository/review) which enhance our understanding of the structure of personality and other forms of individual differences, the processes which cause these individual differences to emerge, and their practical applications. a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores. On the affective side, stereotype threat occurs when there is a discrepancy between our positive concept of our own skills and abilities and the negative stereotypes that suggest poor performance. endstream What is important is to reduce the self doubts that are activated when we consider the negative stereotypes. �z@� �0& �z@� �0& Both describe intelligence as a cognitive entity rather than a physical entity. Sternberg, R. J. stream This chapter will introduce you to some of the fundamentals of individual differences. �0D�=Ŝ 6��݊ endstream 15.6 Schizophrenia: The Edge of Reality, XVI. �z@� �0& Having extremely high IQ is clearly less of a problem than having extremely low IQ, but there may also be challenges to being particularly smart. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(5), 456–467. 3.4 Putting It All Together: The Nervous System and the Endocrine System, 17. Retrieved from stream 3.3 Psychologists Study the Brain Using Many Different Methods, 15. One environmental factor that may affect how individuals perform and achieve is their expectations about their ability at a task. <> 11 0 obj � endstream /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> Ian J. Deary and John Maltby on psychology’s return to its practical roots Currently, individual differences researchers in Britain are still making key contributions and developing bodies of work to advance our understanding of intelligence’s structure, origins and outcomes. (2006). �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ All traits of human beings like social, emotional and intellectual are controlled and modifies through proper education. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 3(2), 57–61. <> Individual differences form an integral part of work psychology. 42 0 obj You will need to be familiar with contemporary theories of intelligence and how culture influences definitions of intelligence. Wording differences aside, these definitions are quite similar. 26 0 obj 2.1 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research, 9. Retrieved from Severe and profound mental retardation are usually caused by genetic mutations or accidents during birth, whereas mild forms have both genetic and environmental influences. Newcombe, N. S., & Huttenlocher, J. Individual differences research typically includes personality, temperament (neuro-chemically-based behavioural traits), motivation, intelligence, ability, IQ, interests, values, self-concept, self-efficacy, and self-esteem (to name just a few). x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� <> Some children are particularly good at math or science, some at automobile repair or carpentry, some at music or art, some at sports or leadership, and so on. Alleviating women’s mathematics stereotype threat through salience of group achievements. 6.3 Learning by Insight and Observation, 32. 4.3 Altering Consciousness Without Drugs, 27. /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> intelligence test. endobj x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Class 12 Psychology Quick Revision notes Chapter 1 Intelligence And Aptitude • Individual differences refer to distinctiveness and variations among people’s characteristics and behaviour patterns. endobj �L� One end of the distribution of intelligence scores is defined by people with very low IQ. The report found women in Canada had significantly higher tertiary attainment rates compared with men, at 56% versus 46%, with a 16 percentage-point gap between the genders among younger adults. 35 0 obj As you might imagine, this endeavour is fraught with methodological and theoretical minefields. �!>� .� endstream Types of Intelligence Tests: Intelligence tests may be classified under three categories: 1. 2.3 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics, III. 1.2 Learning Style. 2000 years ago Plato stated that the two persons are born exactly alike but each differs from the other by natural endowments, where one will be exited for occupation purpose and where as other will be for another … Another individual difference factor, which has been received attention in recent research, is emotional intelligence (EI). endstream Types of Individual Differences: • 1. endstream In T. Balchin, B. Hymer, & D. J. Matthews (Eds. 1.2 Learning Style. Because black students are aware of the stereotype that blacks are intellectually inferior to whites, this stereotype might create a negative expectation, which might interfere with their performance on intellectual tests through fear of confirming that stereotype. ��ebbbbbN���������wV`Y�X�X�X�X�X��!��@�@�@�@�@���XV V V V V V�t,++++++p:������8� �z@� �0&�2�Գ��ɹ What is mental retardation? stream <> 194–202). Halpern, D. F., Benbow, C. P., Geary, D. C., Gur, R. C., Hyde, J. S., & Gernsbache, M. A. Intelligence-Individual Differences in Intelligence: Questions 1-6 of 15. Slate. Eugenics became popular in Canada and the United States in the early 20th century and was supported by many prominent psychologists, including Sir Francis Galton (1822–1911). 5.5 Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Perception, 29. As you might imagine, this endeavour is fraught with methodological and theoretical minefields. endobj intelligence. Intelligence Unit 3 > Individual Differences Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. �����c����� ks� Psychologists who study personal-ity traits are among those most likely to be interested in individual differences. � endobj Another study of young adolescents who had even higher IQs found that these students ended up attending graduate school at a rate more than 50 times higher than that in the general population (Lubinski & Benbow, 2006). <> endobj x���� �0EAc�='-���L���]�����&+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++X~9�gY�X�X�X�X�X��!��@�@�@�@�@���XV V V V V V V�� Online: Twitter , Facebook Stereotype threat effects on black and white athletic performance. endobj Even groups who typically enjoy advantaged social status can be made to experience stereotype threat. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� endobj 16 0 obj endobj >> Individual differences psychology focuses on this second level of study. �z@� �0& x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� <> Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. <> ��ebbbbbN���������C`Y�X�X�X�X�X�X�;+��@�@�@�@�@���XV V V V V V�t,++++++p:������8� <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� The brilliant but controversial figure of Hans Eysenck sparked polarising debates over questions such as the heritability of intelligence, the educational prospects of those low in ‘IQ’, and the reduction of personality to neural circuits. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� There’s still no good reason to believe black-white IQ differences are due to genes. Yudell, M. (2014). Sex differences on the progressive matrices: A meta-analysis. How genetics is changing our understanding of ‘race.’ The New York Times: Opinion. 2, pp. /SMask 44 0 R /Length 2128 >> In psychology, these are called individual differences referring to the extent and kind of variations or similarities among people on some of the important psychological aspects such as intelligence, personality, interest, and aptitude. endobj endobj • Approaches explaining individual differences in psychological functioning. endobj Experimental psychologists seem embarrassed and annoyed by individual differences, which they often treat as error variances (Furnham, 2008). /Resources 30 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 67 >> stream �\ }) endstream Individual differences innate ... wide range of human emotions and to recognize these states in others can help children develop compassion and emotional intelligence. stream <> Education is one major factor which brings individual differences. Choose from 500 different sets of psychology intelligence individual differences flashcards on Quizlet. Although their bell curves overlap considerably, there are also average group differences for members of different racial and ethnic groups. (2000). 4 0 obj Ans. Download Psychology Of Individual Differences Intelligence full book in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format, get it for read on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. �\ }( 9.3 Communicating With Others: Development and Use of Language, 47. 6 0 obj endobj Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Retrieved from Assumptions about sex differences in intelligence are increasingly challenged in the research. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@��� Women tend to do better than men on some verbal tasks, including spelling, writing, and pronouncing words (Halpern et al., 2007), and they have better emotional intelligence in the sense that they are better at detecting and recognizing the emotions of others (McClure, 2000). endobj <> AP Psychology- Intelligence (Testing and Individual Differences) Advanced Placement Psychology. endstream 29 0 obj Lynn, R. & Vanhanen, T. (2002). stream Intelligence and culture. 5 0 obj Societal attitudes toward individuals with mental disabilities have changed over the past decades. 3.2 Our Brains Control Our Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviour, 14. Intelligence Unit 3 > Individual Differences Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. In some cases, these beliefs may be positive, and they have the effect of making us feel more confident and thus better able to perform tasks. 'Individual differences’ seems an innocuous term, but the normalising of differential psychology is relatively recent in Britain. Science, 274(5291), 1296. Physical, mental, social and cultural differences etc. About 1% of the Canadian population, most of them males, fulfill the criteria for mental retardation, but some children who are diagnosed as mentally disabled lose the classification as they get older and better learn to function in society. Explain how very high and very low intelligence is defined and what it means to have them. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 8(1), 1–51. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(9), 1183–1193. <> A particular vulnerability of people with low IQ is that they may be taken advantage of by others, and this is an important aspect of the definition of mental retardation (Greenspan, Loughlin, & Black, 2001). endobj �����c����� k�� The situation in which one takes a test may create stereotype threat, whereby performance decrements are caused by the knowledge of cultural stereotypes. Human intelligence - Human intelligence - Cognitive theories: During the era dominated by psychometric theories, the study of intelligence was influenced most by those investigating individual differences in people’s test scores. This dark chapter in Canadian history shows how intelligence testing can be used to justify political and racist ideology. Others believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Vogel, G. (1996). Online: Twitter , Facebook Intelligence: What is indigenous to India and what is shared? Knowing is half the battle: Teaching stereotype threat as a means of improving women’s math performance. �����c����� k�� � 31 0 obj /Resources 28 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 110 >>