These analogs, when sprayed on Arabidopsis, can induce the accumulation of the master regulator of plant defense NPR1. the highest content of iodine; however, intake of this micr, Percentage of Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for iodine (RDA-I) and hazard quotient, (HQ) for intake of iodine through consumption of 50 and 100 g portions of fresh lettuce leaves by adults, The main problem in the global food economy is micronutrient malnutrition, which occurs, mainly in developing countries. [ Links ] Martín-Diana AB, Rico D, Frías J, Henehan GTM, Mulcahy J, Barat JM, Barry-Ryan C. 2006. Results: Median and Mean (95% CI) concentrations of urinary iodine and creatinine were 129 µg/L, 137.62 µg/L (95% CI: 126.28, 148.95) and 1.72 g/L, 1.86 g/L (95% CI: 0.55-3.17),respectively. ; Romero, L.; Ruiz, J.M. AhR silencing may results showed that fortification with 5-ISA caused a significant increase in the concentration of Mg, Ca, ] also reported an improvement of Mg level after, its important role in essential plant processes such as protein synthesis and photosynthesis. Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Food T, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology. the plants were in the rosette phase (18 April 2018 and 12 April 2019). To avoid the health consequences of iodine deficiency, it is necessary to include alternative food sources of this trace element in the human diet. CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes are also responsible for metabolism of xenobiotics, including drugs. Bottex, B.; Dorne, J.L.C.M. MS technique, as well as basic chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Reduces blood pressure, cholesterol and triglitseriidite. The order of Se content in leaves was as follows: REDL ‘Redin’ = BUTL ‘Cud Voorburgu’ > REDL ‘Lollo rossa’ > ICEL ‘Maugli’ > BUTL ‘Zimująca’ > ICEL ‘Królowa lata’. With its abundance of vitamins A and C, lettuce and proved a powerful tool in the fight against cancer. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). between the dry matter of lettuce cultivated in the control and 3.5-diISA combinations. practice of iodised salt use in a remote community in Kerema district, Gulf province, Papua New Guinea. after fertilization with iodine compounds, a decrease in the percentage of arachidic acid was observed. from 50 and 100 g portions of edible fresh weight, respectively (data not shown). Two-year studies (2014–2015) were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system. The level of I accumulation formed the following order: REDL ‘Lollo rossa’ > REDL ‘Redin’ = BUTL ‘Cud Voorburgu’ > BUTL ‘Zimująca’ > ICEL ‘Maugli’ > ICEL ‘Królowa lata’. [. MetOH solution to the tube and incubating for another 15 min at 60, 4; means followed by the same letter are not significantly. NMDA receptors may be of a great importance in case of triclosan mode of action. However, an unfavourable effect of 40.0 μM I applied as KIO3 on the chemical composition of plants (the content of sugars, phenolic compounds, and mineral nutrients) was not noted for 5I-SA applied in 1.6 and 8.0 μM I doses. a commercially available test kit (AOAC procedure No 991.43). The objective of this experiment was to assess the effects of organic or chemical nutrient solutions on the growth and composition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in greenhouse production.Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solution, an organic hydroponics solution, and no fertilization were factored with lettuce cultivars of different phenotypes, iceberg, romaine, loose head, and loose leaf. None of the iodine compounds, in most tested doses, have substantially increased the CAT and POX activities in tomato leaves. Green salad is high in magnesium. 33(1):39-48. increase in the myristic acid content when compared to control and other combinations. These compounds were applied with and without vanadium in the form of ammonium methavanadate (NH4VO3) at a dose of 0.1 μM. A high consumption of nitrates contributes to the risk, of cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder. The same tendency was not, was characterized by a lower content of nitrates, as compared to the control [, ], who found an increased content of nitrate in water spinach after, the biochemical mechanism of N uptake and assimilation in which specific transporters and enzymes, ), and nitrite reductase (NiR), which reduces nitrite to ammonium [, the application of iodosalicylic acids contributed to a decrease in the level of free amino acids in tested, This is in line with previous findings in the literature [, as well as nitrate reductase (NR) activity, can contribute to pathological disorders in plants and thus decrease crop quality, observed increased concentrations of chloride after the application of iodosalicylic acids compared, and chloride transporters, so it is possible for there to be a distortion of transfer after fortification with. In the majority of the cultivars, the applied combinations of I+Se and I+Se+SA resulted in a reduction in the nitrate(V) content that was beneficial to the consumer and increased levels of sugars, phenols, phenylpropanoids, flavonols, and anthocyanins. The plant also includes riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamins K, PP, B9. J Food Comp Anal. Regardless of the kind of the applied compound, the highest biomass of heads was produced by the REDL ‘Redin’ variety. MO, USA). ‘Melodion’. The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). The applied treatments had no significant impact on lettuce biomass (leaves and roots). because it did not generate phytotoxic symptoms in plants. 8; means followed by the same letter are not significantly. This study demonstrates that the biofortification of lettuce with iodine compounds has no e, content of ash, dietary fiber, and digestible carbohydrates. Vanadium was mainly found in roots where the content of this element increased proportionally to its dose. The tested KI, 3,5-diISA, and 5-ISA doses had no negative impact on the growth and development of plants, apart from the reduction of shoot biomass after the application of 3,5-diISA in 10 and 25 µM I doses. In future assays, we plan to test whether these analogs avoid degradation by SA hydroxylases from plant pathogens. not limited to negative impacts on human health. The content of nitrogenous compounds and chlorides (means for 2018-2019). Chromatographic analysis was carried out under the following conditions: C; injected sample volume, 1 mL; carrier gas flow through, C, held for 5 min, was used to separate the, various fatty acid methyl esters; then, the temperature was raised every 5 to 180, another 16 min; then, it was raised every 5 to 220, Impact) at the full scanning spectrum from 40 to 500 m. used to perform the mass spectrometry analysis. Orange curds of ‘Sunset’ F1 were the richest in Al, and high in Li, Sc, and Sn. Mays Saccharata Group) “Złota Karłowa”. interfere with the chloride transport in iodine-fertilized lettuce. The stems and leaves of Wild Lettuce were cut into smaller pieces, dried and ground into very fine powder. An appropriate ratio of fatty acid composition allows us to maintain. The purpose of our research was to compare the uptakes and effects of the application of the following mineral and organic iodine compounds on young tomato plants: KI, 5-iodosalicylic (5-ISA), and 3,5-diiodosalicylic (3,5-diISA) acids. Included in. important in terms of potential consumers. Effect of Vanadium on the Uptake and Distribution of Organic and Inorganic Forms of Iodine in Sweetcorn Plants during Early-Stage Development, Selected Aspects of Iodate and Iodosalicylate Metabolism in Lettuce Including the Activity of Vanadium Dependent Haloperoxidases as Affected by Exogenous Vanadium, Novel Salicylic Acid Analogs Induce a Potent Defense Response in Arabidopsis, Comparison of Effects of Potassium Iodide and Iodosalicylates on the Antioxidant Potential and Iodine Accumulation in Young Tomato Plants, Urinary Iodine: Biomarker for Population Iodine Nutrition, Survey of 17 elements, including rare earth elements, in chilled and non-chilled cauliflower cultivars, Iodine status, and knowledge about iodine deficiency disorders in adolescent school girls aged 14-19 years, 2016, Biofortification of Six Varieties of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) With Iodine and Selenium in Combination With the Application of Salicylic Acid, National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme: Current status & future strategy, Zalecenia dietetyczne dotyczące spożywania jodu — w poszukiwaniu konsensusu między kardiologami a endokrynologami. Antioxidant for the content of vitamins and minerals. Bouis, H.E. The obtained results of iodine accumulation in individual parts after applying iodine and vanadium fertilization testify to the stimulating effect of vanadium on iodine uptake and accumulation. Green salad can be beneficial in the treatment of indigestion, arthritis, circulatory problems and colitis. ions was noted in lettuce after fertilization with 3.5-diISA. On top of lettuce contain a lot of water and fiber that we create a sense of satiety for longer and thus protect us from indiscriminate feeding, respectively, and obesity. ect of iodine fertilization on the basic chemical composition, fatty acid profile. The study of the nature of the absorption of iodine by higher plants, and in particular by crops such as corn, remains insufficiently studied. 3. Purify for fiber content. reported that fertilization with iodide, ect on sucrose concentration in tested plants [, kg for lettuce grown under cover and in the open air. Mineral composition (means for 2018-2019). The study is focus on the proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Wild Lettuce and its extractive value in different solvents. ; Perata, P. in urine, faeces and selected organs of rats fed lettuce biofortified with iodine through foliar application. Two-year studies were conducted in a greenhouse with hydroponic cultivation of three botanical varieties of lettuce in an NFT (nutrient film technique) system: two cultivars butterhead lettuces (abb. increase in iodine in lettuce leaves in comparison to the control. The sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency in India is within reach, what is required is accelerated and coordinated effort by all key stakeholder at national and State level. In India, the entire population is prone to IDDs due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the sub-continent and thus both animal and plant source food grown on the iodine-deficient soil. The results obtained in this study are comparable with the data of other authors. ; Ruiz, J.M. 8; Means followed by the same letter are not significantly. Ranasinghe, R.; Marapana, R. Nitrate and nitrite content of vegetables: Krapp, A. Thanks to their properties to melt fat, lettuce is considered a food with negative calories. In The another kind of receptors which are very important for nervous system functions are NMDA receptors. ; Erlund, I.; Meltzer. NMDA receptors take part in neurons excitability, processes of neuroplasticity and excitotoxicity. No iodine treatment was applied in Experiment No. The activity of vHPO in crop plants as well as the uptake and metabolism of iodosalicylates in lettuce have not yet been studied. Examination of involvement of AhR and NMDA receptors in cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction. Iodine (I) is classified as a beneficial element for plants. 2, 3 and 4, respectively. After activation, this receptor becomes a transcription factor for receptor subunits in the same way. Fresh lettuce leaves were analyzed to determine the. All applied compounds, except for SA, caused a reduction of ascorbic acid (AA) content and increase of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) content in leaves. ICEL) ‘Maugli’ and ‘Królowa lata’ (all this four cultivars are classified as Lactuca sativa L. var. Lettuce heads were cut in half and mixed in order to obtain a representative sample of all leaves, (old and young) from all heads in each treatment. replications of 15 plants (60 plants per treatments). Iodine and creatinine concentrations were measured in casual urine samples. capitata) as well two cultivars Lactuca sativa L. var. 935.38). The absorption of iodine from seawater in algae is known to be more efficient in the presence of vanadium, with key role in this process played by the iodoperoxidase enzyme, with vanadium acting as a cofactor. In a yeast two-hybrid system, these analogs can strengthen the interactions among NPR proteins. In weight loss diets is recommended to consume varieties with hard leaves, because they are processed more slowly by the body and contain more fiber. Lettuce belongs to vegetables that as a result of biofortification may accumulate greater amounts of, plant is a relatively good source of dietary fiber, consuming food high in dietary fiber has a positive e, compounds, which are also present in lettuce. (Martin Christ Gefriertrocknungsanlagen GmbH, Germany). Among the, studied objects, there were no statistically significant di, The fatty acid composition extracted from lettuce biofortified with iodine is shown in T. palmitoleic acid, margaric acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, arachidic acid. This chemical composition is based on the properties of lettuce that help in weight loss, strengthen because of the water content and fiber. It was established that after the application of 5-ISA and 3,5-diISA, iodine is taken up to a smaller extent than from KI. The tested treatments were as follows: (1) control, (2) I+Se, (3) I+Se+0.1 mg SA dm−3, (4) I+Se+1.0 mg SA dm−3, and (5) I+Se+10.0 mg SA dm−3. The order of Se content in leaves was as follows: REDL ‘Redin’ = BUTL ‘Cud Voorburgu’ > REDL ‘Lollo rossa’ > ICEL ‘Maugli’ > BUTL ‘Zimująca’ > ICEL ‘Królowa lata’. polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which constituted 71.53–73.50% of the total fatty acid content. Mineral nutrients were introduced into the solution with the use of the following fertilizers: calcium nitrate, monopotassium phosphate, potassium nitrate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium, on the results of chemical analysis of water—150 mg N. contained in water, fertilizers, and nitric acid. A double control was used, the first without iodine and vanadium and the second with vanadium but without iodine. In future assays, we plan to test whether these analogs avoid degradation by SA hydroxylases from plant pathogens. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. In the heads of all cultivars, the level of I accumulation was 10–30 times higher than of Se. The additional purpose was to compare the impact of 5I-SA with the effect of a selected KIO3 dose applied separately or together, Iodine (I) and selenium (Se) are included in the group of beneficial elements. Nitrate accumulation in protected lettuce. of plants cultivated in the control and KIO. Investigation of the impact of triclosan on AhR and NMDA receptor on mRNA and protein expression. status, and knowledge about iodine deficiency disorders in adolescent school girls aged 14–19 years. iodine-fortified plants may depend on factors such as the species of plant or technique of fertilization. investigate the involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhR) and N-me, The agrotechnical methods of biofortification of plants, i.e., enriching them in iodine (I) and selenium (Se) could be effective methods to enrich food products in these elements. ; writing—original draft, editing, O.S., S.S., A.K., I.K. According to the data of the Institute of Medicine, a tolerable upper intake level (UL) of iodine is. Along with dill and egg, lettuce is considered a natural aphrodisiac that enhance sexual desire. and I.K,; resources, S.S., A.K., I.K. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vanadium on iodine uptake via vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidase (vHPO) activity in sweetcorn plants (Zea mays L. subsp. We found that5-ISA, 3,5-diISA and T3 were naturally synthesized in lettuce and its content increased when 5-ISA, 3,5-diISA were applied. revealed that 5-ISA may act as an inducer of plant defenses; therefore, it can pr, Some researchers suggest there is a possibility of using compounds of plant origin for the tr, of symptoms of short-term hypothyroidism in patients who can not undergo continued hormonal, involved in the biosynthesis of plant-derived thyroid analogs (PDTHA). Mineral composition (means for 2018–2019). by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice in a norwegian convenience sample. Smole ´, iodine and selenium also resulted in a reduction of K, S, B, and Fe content in lettuce leaves compared, mineral elements that can have synergistic or antagonistic e. between iodine and other elements, which leads to enhancement of their transport and absorption, whereas antagonisms weaken those activities [, The obtained results demonstrated the positive changes in sugar concentrations after fortification. by many of environmental xenobiotics, for example dioxins. BUTL) ‘Cud Voorburgu’ and ‘Zimująca,’ two cultivars iceberg lettuces (abb. C and 20 min maintaining this temperature. An adequate number of macro and microelements in the diet is essential for health [, fortification of crops can contribute to replenishing shortages of this micronutrient and ther, diet is universal salt iodization, which involves the fortification of salt both for human and livestock. Iodine and vanadium are elements that are closely related to organisms in water environments. (3,5-diISA) forms of iodine by lettuce was compared. One of the most effective ways of improving nutrition is the biofortification of crops with minerals and vitamins. Int J Mol Sci 13(2):1426–1436 CrossRef Google Scholar Bhattacharya S, Malleshi NG (2012) Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes.