Two percent benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as initiator. The whole assembly was introduced into the furnace and the experiment started by heating the system at constant and definite rate throughout the experiment. Load of 100kgf was applied for each measurement. Electrical resistance of polyester resins can be further improved by blending with various additives such as antimony trioxide [54], kaolin [55], mica [56] and calcium carbonate [57]. Arc resistance, surface resistivity and volume resistivity were evaluated for all the composites filled with different weight percentages of fillers. For example, in the presence of water, a typical unsaturated polyester resin system with a focus on the thermal, mechanical and impact properties and how they are greatly enhanced over the typical polyester resin system. The use of such fillers can also solve the problems of toxic emissions of halogenated fire retardants and also it lowers the cost of polyester resin. General purpose unsaturated polyester resins were prepared by using maleic anhydride, phthalic anhydride and propylene glycol with the molar ratio of phthalic anhydride : maleic anhydride ranging from 1:2 to 2:1[32-33]. Vinyl ester resins are becoming increasingly important in new industrial applications such as coating, printed circuit boards, metal foil laminates, building materials, automotive parts, rigid foams and fibre reinforced composites [15-19]. In spite of hydrolytic instability problems of these materials, mainly due to the fact of their pre-polymer ester functions [61-62], interest in unsaturated polyester resin comes from their low cost and easy processing. The results are expressed in terms of kinetic energy consumed by the pendulum in order to break the specimen. The market research report identifies and prioritizes opportunities for Global unsaturated Polyester Resin in Automotive Composites by Market application, intermediate material type, country and by region. While surface treated kaolin doesn’t leach out of the polymer matrix. Unsaturated polyester resins are one of the most important matrix resins for commodity glass fibre reinforced composites [171]. This property is based on antimony trioxide reacting in the event of fire with the surrounding material, with the result that a protective layer of various antimony compounds covers the combustible materials. In addition to this, disappearance of anhydride peak at 1755 cm-1 in maleic anhydride & phthalic anhydride and hydroxyl peak at 1375 cm-1 proplyene glycol confirms the formation of polyester. maleate. The Rockwell hardness test measures the net increase in depth impression as the load on an indentor is increased from a fixed minor to a major load and then returned to minor load. The composites obtained from electrical resistance formulations were characterized by surface resistivity, volume resistivity, arc resistance and IR. To fully cure them, they are dissolved in a vinyl monomer (and occasionally concentration as well as on the type of resin and vinyl monomer and cure In some cases, conventional solvents such as xylenes are also used. of the polyester. After application of resin on glass fibre, the composites were cured by compression moulding technique at 100 psi pressure and 120oC temperature for 30minutes. Such types of resins are generally used in fume hoods, electrical equipments, building panels and navy boats. Such types of resins are generally used in printed circuit board, electrical appliances and electronic equipments. The band at 1736 cm-1 confirms the presence of –C=O ester group and also confirms the formation of polyester resin. Polymers are substances whose molecules consist of a large number of units of a few types: the units themselves, consisting of a number of atoms, are usually referred to as the segments of the polymer. The mixture was mechanically stirred and heated at 1200C under nitrogen gas stream, and esterification was carried out while removing water formed by the reaction from the reaction system. Unsaturated polyester resin prepared from isophthalic acid, maleic anhydride and neopentyl glycol was mixed with dicyclopentadiene resin and styrene to give dielectric compound for electric machines [36]. These studies showed clearly that the styrene emission cannot be avoided as long as the basic chemical composition is kept unchanged. Polyesters have received a great deal of attention since the early work of Carothers, who initiated study on many step-growth polymerizations [7]. Unsaturated polyester, any of a group of thermosetting resins produced by dissolving a low-molecular-weight unsaturated polyester in a vinyl monomer and then copolymerizing the two to form a hard, durable plastic material. The unsaturation present in this type of polyesters provides a site for subsequent cross-linking [23-24]. In the naval sector, it is not the case that there are more fires on ships with composite structures than on ships with metallic structures. Polyester resin is a thermosetting unsaturated polymer resin, which is formed from the reaction between organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. tetrachlorophthalic anhydride(I), tetrabromophthalic anhydride(II) [49], dibromoneopentyl glycol (III) [50] or tetrabromo bisphenol-A (IV) [51] in place of phthalic anhydride or propylene glycol. The results clearly indicate that the composites of present study can be used in all fire resistance applications. Literature survey reveals that there are many reports about the synthesis and modification methods of unsaturated polyester resin [41-49]. A medium absorption band at 1461 cm-1 can be attributed to –C-H bending. Increase in strength with increase in filler content is due to the reinforcement action provided by the filler particles to the polymer matrix. cobalt salt (naphthenate or octoate) or an aromatic tertiary amine is added to the Two percent benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as initiator. Resin Viscosity Application VE Resin Vinylester Epoxybispehnol A vinyl ester ~ 500 mPas Parts of high chemical resistance OAResin 1 UPES ... Unsaturated Polyester Resins & Vinyl Ester Resins Additives from Evonik. The Xylene was completely distilled out and reaction product was allowed to cool. Thermosetting plastics not act as effective insulators but also provide mechanical support for field carrying conductors. conditions, monomer content, and miscibility of the two resins. In present study low styrene emission unsaturated polyester resins were used with antimony trioxide and zinc borate for composite preparation (table-6). Surface treatment of fillers improves the mechanical as well as electrical performances because surface treatment of kaolin with the coupling agents will bridged polymer molecules and mineral particles and have the unique ability to substantially improve the bond strength between organic polymer and kaolin particles. Due to growing health The use of glass-reinforced laminates in the field of dielectric materials has been of prime importance in the engineering materials. For the measurement, a specimen was cut from the fabricated composite (6.4 x 1.27 cm2) and V notched (2.5 mm) at the middle. curable coating formulations. Ortho. Antimony trioxide gives poor results compared to zinc borate and also mechanical performance decreases with increase in amount as antimony trioxide is poor in mechanical performance. Urea-formaldehyde resins show the values in the range of 1012-1013. It has good thermal stability, lower density and good miscibility with most of the polymers. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. The effect of styrene content on non-exponential and non-Arrhenius behaviour of the -relaxation of cured unsaturated polyester resin was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis [37]. Butyl methacrylate modified LSEUPRC gives better flexural strength than methyl methacrylate and Acrylonitrile modified LSEUPRC. A mixture of 1.25mol Propylene glycol (PG), 0.5mol Phthalic anhydride, 0.2% p-Toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA) and Xylene as distillating solvent was charged in a three-neck reaction kettle equipped with stirrer, thermometer, nitrogen-gas introducing tube, Dean & Stark apparatus, and water condenser. When the temperature was dropped to below 1000C, an amount of styrene was added to a styrene content of 20%. The impact test indicates the energy to break standard test specimen of specified size under the stipulated conditions of specimen mounting and pendulum velocity at impact. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of interest for any comparison of rigid materials or modulus of rupture. most are prepared solely with reactive vinly type monmomers. The breakdown of particle size affects both physical properties and pigment property. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. In filled composite (figure-6) loss of weight at 100, 200, 300, 400 and 450 OC is -0.96, -10.30, -28.58, -65.00 and -66.02% respectively. or anhydride. These new ecological unsaturated polyester resins will be used for marine, automotive, electric and electronic, building construction, sport and leisure, domestic and sanitary appliances, furniture as well as military applications. The fire behaviour of composites can also be improved by using a halogenated resin [175] in place of a traditional resin. The most common vinyl monomer is styrene. Fly ash is a pozzolanic material and has been classified into two classes F and C based on the chemical composition of fly ash. TGA of the cured composites was carried out on TA Instruments, USA model 5000/2960. Methyl methacrylate (MMA), Butyl methacrylate (BMA) and Acrylonitrile (AN). It forms part of the crystallographic family of apatite, isomorphic compounds with the same hexagonal structure. It must be sufficiently strong physically to withstand the mechanical forces which may be exerted by the conductors and at the same time must prevent any significant flow of current between the conductors. [38]. A general structure of vinyl ester obtained by reacting epoxy resin with acrylic acid is as shown below. Fire resistant polyester resins can be prepared by using halogenated dibasic acids e.g. Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols. Composites were prepared by hand lay-up technique using about 50 weight percent of glass fibre and filler. Volume of sample injected was 20µl/min. In conventional unsaturated polyesters the styrene content varies between 35- 45wt %. The synthetic route is shown in Scheme 1. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. The curing rate of it allows the cast sheets, rods, blanks and castings to be machined cut or polished without any difficulty. The resultant formulations were compounded with glass fibre as reinforcing materials and benzoyl peroxide as curing catalyst for composite preparation. The main disadvantage of halogenated fillers is that a fire could create toxic and possibly corrosive smoke. The work reported here seeks to improve the mechanical performance of composites by using surface treated kaolin. Unsaturated polyester resins also find uses in coatings and They are widely used commercially as fibres, plastics, composites and for coatings applications too [4-6]. From overall study we conclude that composites prepared from unsaturated polyester resin using additives like hydroxyapatite, zinc borate, fly ash, antimony trioxide, mica, surface treated kaolin and raw kaolin are of better/upgraded in fire resistance and electrical resistance with good mechanical properties and acrylic modification by partially replacing styrene monomer reduces styrene emission. Hydroxyapatite can be found in nature or synthesized by precipitation method using chemical reagents. 3.3.1.1. DCPD modified resins are produced by Deltech, Polynt, and Dow The electrical properties of polymers are related to the behaviour of polymers as an electrical insulating material for the general interest. In this work, fire behaviour of composites was evaluated. The resultant modified unsaturated polyester resin was named as low styrene emission unsaturated polyester resin (LSEUPR). The styrene acts both as a cross-linking agent and as a viscosity reducer so that the resin can be processed. When the temperature was dropped to 800C, 21.24 gm (0.5 mol) Maleic anhydride (MA) was added and continues heating at 200-2250C until an acid number of 25 were reached. Since the formation of these compounds consumes heat and because they are generally difficult to ignite, they protect the underlying material from ignition. In this study, azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) and azobisisoheptonitrile (ABVN) were presented as composite foaming agents … Alkyds are the reaction products of polyhydric alcohols with fatty acids followed by reaction with dibasic acids. Tests show that the fire results are good with a decrease in heat and smoke production during combustion and also decomposition does not release additional toxic gases. When reaction mass becomes clear, it was allowed to cool. Unsaturated Polyester Resin. Ochsenbein and Olliver [31] synthesized storage stable unsaturated polyester resin by reacting maleic anhydride, propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol at 1850C under inert atmosphere. It is a thixotropic, accelerated, medium reactive, low viscosity ortho-phthalic based unsaturated polyester resin for Acrylic back-up applications. There are several experimental and numerical procedures which can be used to evaluate the laminates in terms of electrical properties [150-165]. They are heterochain macromolecules that possess carboxylate ester groups as an integral component of their polymer backbones. maleic anhydride as the saturated and unsaturated component and The arc resistance of composites was measured according to standard method of testing ASTM D- 495 (1989) [168], which is high voltage, low current dry arc resistance of solid electrical insulating Material. Figure 10 Illustrates a typical setup for an arc resistance test. The details about fillers are given as below: The formula of hydroxyapatite is Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. polymers which are at least partially interlaced on a microscopic scale Global FRP Unsaturated Polyester Resin Market By Product Type (Orthophthalic, Isophthalic) And By End-Users/Application (Construction Industry, Automotive Industry) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026 Rockwell Hardness study was carried out at room temperature according to standard method of testing ASTM D-785 [101]. Ford Motor Co. Ltd.[29] synthesized unsaturated polyester resin by reacting maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride with propylene glycol at 1000C and then at 2500C till the acid number diminished to the value less than 50 (mg of KOH per gm of sample). Study concerns the percentage weight loss of the two resins clearing and low Suitable... 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