The specimen with parallel flat surfaces was placed on the avail of the apparatus and minor load (10kgf) was applied by lowering the steel ball onto the surface of the specimen. The report looks into the global unsaturated polyester resin market according to product type, end-use application, and geographical distribution. The results clearly indicate that the composites of present study can be used in all electrical applications where PF, MF and UF resins are used. For the measurement, a specimen was cut from the fabricated composite (6.4 x 1.27 cm2) and V notched (2.5 mm) at the middle. Unsaturated polyester resins have been described in US patent 3,347,806 (Chemische Werke Albert) and 4,029,848 (Dow Chremical). structures and coatings when cross-linked with reactive
The effects of concentration of filler and surface treatment of filler on mechanical properties have been examined. the properties of unsaturated polyesters. An unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) is a form of thermoset moulding resin that is used for the manufacturing of glass fiber reinforced plastics (FRP). In spite of hydrolytic instability problems of these materials, mainly due to the fact of their pre-polymer ester functions [61-62], interest in unsaturated polyester resin comes from their low cost and easy processing. For example, in the presence of water,
Thermosetting plastics not act as effective insulators but also provide mechanical support for field carrying conductors. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. While surface treated kaolin doesn’t leach out of the polymer matrix. Fire resistance formulations were prepared by adding these additives in different amounts (10 to 30 wt %) in low styrene emission unsaturated polyester resin. Laminates prepared using LSEUPR and fillers give better mechanical performance than traditional unfilled laminates and also there is increase in mechanical properties with increase in amount of filler. The most common vinyl monomer is styrene. It functions as a reactive diluent and as a crosslinking agent. Unsaturated Polyester Resin for Specialty Applications, Polyester, Hosam El-Din M. Saleh, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/48479. For the measurement, a strip of the dimensions 8.0 x 1.25 cm2 was cut from the composites. The impact properties of the polymeric materials are directly related to the overall toughness of the material. Since the formation of these compounds consumes heat and because they are generally difficult to ignite, they protect the underlying material from ignition. The composites can be used for facade elements, dome light crowns, in the transportation sector, in the electrical industry, e.g. cobalt salt (naphthenate or octoate) or an aromatic tertiary amine is added to the
The experiment was stopped when no further change in weight could be observed on further heating. Class C fly ash is produced normally from lignite and sub-bituminous coals. The composites obtained from fire resistance formulations were characterized by Limiting oxygen index according to ASTM D-2863. like mica, raw kaolin and surface treated kaolin with glass fiber and were evaluated for arc resistance, surface resistivity and volume resistivity according to ASTM standards. bonds of the prepolymer but also undergoes homopolymerization. DCPD can also be converted to cyclopentadiene, its
Carleton Ellis introduced the idea for the combination in the 1930’s. Survey of literature revels that there are some reports about the dielectric behaviour of the glass reinforced laminates [130-149]. A Dutron’s Tensile Tester Model No. The resulting current between the electrodes after a given fixed time of application of the voltage was measured ignoring the possible polarization effects. Mechanical properties measured in this study include Izod impact strength, Rockwell Hardness and Flexural strength. Polyesters have received a great deal of attention since the early work of Carothers, who initiated study on many step-growth polymerizations . The resultant formulations were compounded with glass fibre as reinforcing materials and benzoyl peroxide as initiator for composite preparation. Unsaturated polyester resins also find uses in coatings and adhesives. Their advantages lie in their high effectiveness, which enables very low concentrations to be used, while at the same time meeting the most stringent requirements. The unsaturated polyester normally blended with styrene to a reactive resin solution. Polyesters [1-3] are one of the most versatile synthetic copolymers. In the present study, Rockwell hardness tester model RAS/Saroj Engg. Methyl methacrylate modified LSEUPRC gives better flexural strength than acrylonitrile modified LSEUPRC but lower than butyl methacrylate modified unsaturated polyester resin. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The cure
This versatility in the properties of the final thermoset product associated with comparatively low cost has renewed the interest in these resins as an important matrix material for wide range of applications. polymers which are at least partially interlaced on a microscopic scale
Composites prepared using fillers give better electrical performance than unfilled composites and also there is increase in electrical resistance with increase in amount of filler. adhesives. Antimony trioxide and fly ash gives poor results compared to other fillers and also mechanical performance decreases with increase in amount as antimony trioxide has poor binding property. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The styrene acts both as a cross-linking agent and as a viscosity reducer so that the resin can be processed. Load of 100kgf was applied for each measurement. It has… 8. It is a linear polymer obtained by polycondensation of saturated dibasic acid, unsaturated dibasic acid and diol. These resins are very reactive and have very short life. The spectrum was run by applying resin sample on KBr cell covering the range of frequencies from 4000-400 cm-1. Unsaturated polyester resins are mainly used in the production of fiber reinforced plastics and filled plastic products, including sanitary-ware, tanks, pipes, gratings, and high performance components for the marine and transportation industry such as closure and body panels, fenders, boat hulls/ decks and other large glass fiber reinforced plastic articles. The number average (Mn) of polyester resin sample is 1554, weight average (Mw) is 3576 and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) is 2.301. In the present study limiting oxygen index (ASTM D-2863) was determined to characterize the composites. They are widely used commercially as fibres, plastics, composites and for coatings applications too [4-6]. A strong absorption peak appearing at 1306 cm-1 was assigned to –C=C– group of polyester. concern5, styrene has been replaced in many resin systems by other
The technical specifications of antimony trioxide used in this work are given as below: Fire resistance formulations were prepared by adding non-traditional fillers like fly ash, zinc borate and hydroxyapatite in combination with traditional filler antimony trioxide in different amounts (10 to 30 wt %) in prepolymer polyester resin (table-1). Electrical resistant polyester resins can be prepared by using dibasic acids e.g. In the naval sector, it is not the case that there are more fires on ships with composite structures than on ships with metallic structures. The styrene monomer in the unsaturated polyester resin is an environmental and occupational health problem due to evaporation and emissions, which occur during the processing of the resin. Many procedures exist to evaluate fire behaviour of the composite materials [96-97].The key fire resistance properties of interest for polymers to be used in fire resistance applications are ease of ignition, flame spread, ease of extinction, smoke obscuration, smoke toxicity, heat release rate and limiting oxygen index. The glass fibre reinforced laminates were studied for the electrical properties. The Department of Occupational Medicine at Aarhus University in Denmark concluded that styrene may cause cancer in humans. There are several types of polyesters which are used, and their properties depend upon the acids and alcohols used in their formation. The extension of these concepts later led to the discovery of nylon-6,6 in 1935 and Whinfield and Dickson developed poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) in 1941. The curing rate of it allows the cast sheets, rods, blanks and castings to be machined cut or polished without any difficulty. The resins were prepared by reacting glycidyl acrylate and glycidyl methacrylate with bisphenol-A. Tests show that the fire results are good with a decrease in heat and smoke production during combustion and also decomposition does not release additional toxic gases. The results were recorded with the chart speed of 2 mm/min at room temperature. It is one of the most important mechanical properties of interest for any comparison of rigid materials or modulus of rupture. Many procedures exist to evaluate fire behaviour of the composite materials [96-97].The key fire resistance properties of interest for polymers to be used in fire resistance applications are ease of ignition, flame spread, ease of extinction, smoke obscuration, smoke toxicity, heat release rate and limiting oxygen index. 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