The population increased dramatically by at least 2,250,000 (to some 5,300,000) during the next 25 years as the death rate fell and the birth rate remained consistently high. From the high, snowcapped slopes of the Cordillera Real and the Apolobamba range, the descent to the eastern plains is extremely precipitous, plunging through a rainy and heavily forested belt of rugged terrain known as the Yungas—an Aymara word roughly translated as “Warm Lands” or “Warm Valleys.” The Yungas form the southern end of a region that extends along the eastern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (where it is called the Alto Selva [“High Rainforest”]) and continues southeast through Bolivia as far as Santa Cruz. The proportion of Roman Catholics has decreased slowly but still accounts for more than three-fourths of the population. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences. The Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief is an independent expert appointed by the UN Human Rights Council. Lake Poopó used to be the country’s second largest, after Lake Titicaca, and just a few decades ago in … Bolivia has a small Jewish community. Sort fact from fiction in this journey through Latin America. Also worshiped is the sun god, legendary creator of the first Inca emperor Manco Capac and his sister-wife Mama Ocllo on the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca. The country continues, however, to be exceptionally vulnerable to changes in world tin demand. In the 1990s the economy grew rapidly, and billions of dollars in new investment came into Bolivia after the administration of Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada Bustamente (1993–97) privatized nearly the entire state-run economy. During the festival, dancers wear elaborate masks and outfits that depict devils, their blue-eyed mistresses, Inca rulers, and African slave drivers. Bolivia also has reserves of antimony, tungsten (wolfram), lead, copper, and lithium. An impressive line of snowcapped peaks, some exceeding 20,000 feet (6,100 metres), characterize this northern section, which maintains an average elevation of more than 18,000 feet (5,500 metres) for more than 200 miles (320 km). Purpose of mandate. Under a new constitution promulgated in January 2009, COMIBOL must oversee the operations of foreign mining companies. Otherwise, why would they be involved in it? 4,146 reviews. In the late 20th century, however, the demographic and economic landscape began to change as the eastern lowlands—particularly the department of Santa Cruz—developed rapidly. However, after President Morales took office in 2006, he nationalized many of the mining firms. Until the late 20th century, Bolivian tin and silver were extracted mostly by large shaft-mining operations, often performed in difficult, remote sections of the eastern cordilleras and at high elevations. The plateau is a relatively flat-floored depression about 500 miles (800 km) long and 80 miles (130 km) wide, lying at elevations between 12,000 and 12,500 feet (3,650 and 3,800 metres). Important boosts to the economy also accompanied the rapid development of agriculture and extraction industries in the Santa Cruz region, the growth of natural gas and oil exploration in the surrounding areas of Tarija, Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Cochabamba, the modernization of the telecommunications industry, and new investments in electric power generation and water services. In the middle of the Altiplano are the Titicaca and Poopó lakes and basins, which traditionally have been important agricultural, economic, and cultural areas. Although only one-third of its territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. Religion is the substance, the ground, and the depth of man's spiritual life." The ARDA offers recent U.S. and international survey findings, local, national and global profiles of religion, and detailed demographic reports and maps of religious and protestant denominations in America. When religion is seen in terms of sacred, divine, intensive valuing, or ultimate concern, then it is possible to understand why scientific findings and philosophical criticisms (e.g., those made by Richard Dawkins) do not necessarily disturb its adherents. In the mines, llamas are sacrificed as part of the worship of Pachamama and of Tío, the protector of the mines. Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution. Previously only Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua were official languages of the country. The margins of the Altiplano are characterized by numerous spurs and interlocking alluvial fans (accumulations of silt, gravel, and other debris that were brought down from the mountains and that have spread out in the shape of a fan). In the early 21st century Mount Potosí (Cerro Rico), which has been intensively mined since the mid-16th century, sparked renewed interest because of its still-sizable reserves of silver. Bolivia is well endowed with natural resources. Corrections? Bolivia: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%: ... many or most of these are non-practicing Christians. The Bolivian government, wary of foreign exploitation, discussed options and feasibility for the mineral’s extraction and production. The Puna is broken up by the Valles, a system of fertile valleys and mountain basins that are generally larger and less confined than those in the Yungas. craigslist provides local classifieds and forums for jobs, housing, for sale, services, local community, and events Listing of all current and alumni artists. To the north of the Cordillera Real is the Apolobamba range, bordered on the western slopes by lakes and protected areas where vicuñas, alpacas, and llamas thrive. In the 1980s, for example, a glut in the world market forced the formerly state-owned mining corporation, Corporación Minera de Bolivia (COMIBOL), to cut its production drastically and lay off more than two-thirds of its workforce. Jesus Christ didn’t agree with the view that there are many religions, many roads, all leading to salvation. To the west along the border with Chile is the Cordillera Occidental, which contains numerous active volcanoes and the spectacular Uyuni Salt Flat; the cordillera is crowned by the republic’s highest peak, Mount Sajama, reaching an elevation of 21,463 feet (6,542 metres). The country is a major producer of tin and gold, and, although its exports of zinc and silver are small parts of the world market, they account for a significant portion of export earnings. At the beginning of the 20th century fewer than one-tenth of Bolivians lived in urban areas, but by 1950 the urban population had more than doubled. In Bolivia the name Yungas often refers to a smaller region northeast of La Paz, which, like the neighbouring region of Alto Beni (the upper basin of the Beni River north of Caranavi), is part of the larger Yungas region. At the beginning of the 21st century, more than two-thirds of Bolivians were urban. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Uyuni, Bolivia. Many Indians, particularly in the cities, market towns, and new colonies, speak or understand Spanish. Activists from the Amazon River basin arriving in the Bolivian capital of La Paz on June 27, 2012. Among the country’s most valuable assets are its mineral deposits, hydrocarbons (petroleum and natural gas), and its renewable natural resources, such as agricultural and forest products, especially soybeans and Brazil nuts. Although only one-third of Bolivia’s territory lies in the Andes Mountains, most of the nation’s largest cities are located there, and for centuries the highlands have attracted the nation’s largest amount of mining, commercial, and business investment. The revolutionary program of 1952–53 included immediate agrarian reform, based on breaking up the large estates and nationalizing the mines. A huge lake in Bolivia has almost entirely disappeared. In southern Bolivia the Andes become much wider and are formed by a high, tilted block called the Puna, with west-facing escarpments and more gentle eastward slopes down to the plains. Bolivia: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 5%: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%: Botswana: Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census) Brazil Box 2868 | Guaynabo, Puerto Rico 00970-2868 E-Mail: webmaster@wepa.com 23.253.220.18 In the extreme south is the Bolivian Chaco, which forms part of the Gran Chaco; it is a level area that varies strikingly with the seasons. Since the 1940s the Roman Catholic Church has ventured from an almost exclusively ceremonial role into the fields of social aid, the news media, and education. On December 30, RDIF and Bolivia's Health Supply Centre, CEASS, announced an agreement to supply the country with 5.6 million doses of Sputnik V, which would be sufficient to vaccinate around 2.6 million people. In 1985, however, the government of Pres. Some Bolivians emigrate to Argentina or Chile, searching for work and higher wages. Those who are serious about religion should think that the one they’ve chosen is acceptable to God and Jesus. Healthcare expenditured comprised only 4.9% of the GDP. Did Chile gain its independence in 1818? The Mighty Mighty BossToneS. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Lake Titicaca, one famous natural feature of Bolivia, is the highest lake in the world that is deep enough for sailing a boat. P.O. At the beginning of the 20th century the population of Bolivia was estimated at 1,800,000. North and east of the Andes and Yungas is the Oriente region, an extension of the Amazon River basin that covers more than two-thirds of Bolivia. A primate cardinalship, located in Sucre, heads the church hierarchy in Bolivia. The constitutional capital is the historic city of Sucre, where the Supreme Court is established, but the administrative capital is La Paz, where the executive and legislative branches of government function. The Hot Spot The New Religion. After the arrival of the conquistadores, Bolivia was subsumed within the Viceroyalty of Peru, and it provided Spain with immense wealth in silver. Mi Teleferico. Bolivia’s mountainous western region, which is one of the highest inhabited areas in the world, constitutes an important economic and political centre. The Oriente includes much of the northern departments of Beni and Pando, where the low plains are covered by savanna and, in the far north, by expanses of tropical rainforest. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Many Indians, particularly in the cities, market towns, and new colonies, speak or understand Spanish. The implications for all of humanity, and indeed for science, religion and philosophy will be immense. Northward from the Chaco the relief of the Santa Cruz department is somewhat more varied, exhibiting a gentle downward slope to the north. Average per capita income is low, and Bolivia remains one of the poorest countries in South America. Aspects The ARDA provides free access to the most authoritative religion statistics, data and church membership reports from around the world, including Christian statistics and adherents data. Previously only Spanish, Aymara, and Quechua were official languages of the country. Education. Author of. To the east is the Cordillera Oriental, whose spectacular northern section near La Paz is called Cordillera Real (“Royal Range”). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Did the Incan people rule over ancient Mexico? We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The vast area of the Oriente is composed of low alluvial plains (llanos), great swamps, flooded bottomlands, open savannas, and tropical forests. Exploring Latin America: Fact or Fiction? It supports the greatest variety of wildlife in the nation, as well as the largest population centre (Santa Cruz city) and the fastest-growing of Bolivia’s regional economies. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In addition, an increasing world demand for lithium (used in batteries for high-tech devices) brought renewed attention to the large reserves of untapped lithium in Bolivia; huge deposits lie beneath the Uyuni Salt Flat in the southwestern part of the country. Bolivia shares Lake Titicaca, the second largest lake in South America (after Lake Maracaibo), with Peru. As a consequence denial of the events and facts would be difficult. They lie at elevations mostly between 6,000 and 9,500 feet (1,800 and 2,900 metres) and are noted for their rich, varied agriculture and the so-called garden cities of Cochabamba, Sucre, and Tarija. Take advantage of our Presidents' Day bonus! The economy, depending on the earnings from tin exportation, fluctuated wildly. Distinguished Professor of International Studies and History, University of South Florida, Tampa. Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Spanish and 36 indigenous languages are official in Bolivia per the 2009 constitution. The rate of urbanization has paralleled that of population growth. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Many of the mines were taken over by cooperatives owned by former employees. ... National Quarantine Measures in Bolivia through September 30. Juan Evo Morales Ayma—who shared a leftist ideology with close allies Pres. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Víctor Paz Estenssoro enacted some of the continent’s toughest austerity measures and dropped the inflation rate from 24,000 percent to less than 10 percent. Bolivia is traditionally regarded as a highland country. Hugo Chavéz of Venezuela and Fidel Castro of Cuba—had begun a shift back toward the nationalization of Bolivia’s industries to counter foreign control and to better fund social programs for the poor. In the early 1980s the country’s businesses stagnated as a result of falling world tin prices, bad harvests, debt repayments, and inflation that became hyperinflation. The literacy rate in Bolivia is 94.98%. Extending some 950 miles (1,500 km) north-south and 800 miles (1,300 km) east-west, Bolivia is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest and west by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. The government, attempting to satisfy the new labour unions, did not reduce the surplus number of miners, nor did it promote greater efficiency in many other sectors of the economy. Through the centuries, the Roman Catholic Church has accepted some indigenous rituals and customs by assimilation, mainly through combined Catholic and traditional celebrations that continue to be an important part of life in rural and urban settings. Its economic development has been limited, however, by high production costs and lack of investment; persisting obstacles include an inadequate transportation infrastructure and the country’s landlocked location. During the last quarter of the 20th century the rate of population growth slowed somewhat but was still among the higher rates in Latin America. 102 reviews $$ - $$$ • Vegetarian Friendly, Vegan Options, Gluten Free Options. Thus, despite the long-overdue political and social reforms embodied in the revolution, the rate of national economic growth remained extremely low. There the Andes reach their greatest breadth and complexity. 2020. During the rainy season it becomes a veritable swamp, but it is a hot semidesert during the remaining seven or eight months of the year. Christianity is the largest religion in Bolivia, with Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination. After the state pulled out of mineral exploration, most of Bolivia’s mineral production fell into the hands of Compañía Minera del Sur (COMSUR), Inti Raymi, and a number of smaller mining companies, as well as foreign-owned companies. The mandate holder has been invited to identify existing and emerging obstacles to the enjoyment of the right to freedom of religion or belief and present recommendations on ways and means to overcome such obstacles. Bolivia, country of west-central South America. Hellcat Records is pleased to welcome the progenitors of ska, The Mighty Mighty BossToneS to the family. Formation of Liberal and Conservative parties, The rise of new political groups and the Bolivian National Revolution, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Bolivia, Bolivia - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Bolivia - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Between these ranges lies the Altiplano (“High Plateau”), which extends from southern Peru through Bolivia to northern Argentina. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to receive considerable foreign technical assistance and long-term loans from international organizations, including the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as from numerous creditor nations. Bolivia has one of the highest degrees of income inequality in the world. The rise of open-pit silver- and gold-mining operations, coupled with the privatization of state mining companies, changed the face of Bolivia’s mining industry. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Most workers at the cooperatives, however, continued to labour under extremely difficult conditions and often lacked social benefits. Terraced fields built hundreds of years ago lie at the foothills of snow-covered peaks, which have been sacred to the Indians since ancient times. Initially, however, agricultural production decreased, mineral output dropped disastrously, and wages increased. The system in Bolivia is dominated by two great parallel ranges. Some characteristics of pantheistic pre-Columbian religion have survived in the Indian communities of the Altiplano, especially the worship of Pachamama, the goddess of the Earth. Health. The country has a rich history. Fortunately they have been well documented, photographed, and subjected to testing by reputable experts. The surface of the Altiplano is composed mostly of water- and wind-borne deposits from the bordering mountains, and it slopes gently southward, its evenness broken by occasional hills and ridges. Bolivia - Bolivia - Languages and religion: Spanish and 36 indigenous languages are official in Bolivia per the 2009 constitution. The country has been landlocked since it lost its Pacific coast territory to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879–84), but agreements with neighbouring countries have granted it indirect access to the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. For example, in the mining cities of Potosí and Oruro, tens of thousands of Bolivians and foreign tourists celebrate Carnival by paying homage to the Virgin of the Mines and to Pachamama. Updates? By 2006 Pres. Omissions? After 25 years of slow growth thereafter it had increased to about 2,300,000. Darwin’s Theory of the Evolution of Man will be overturned. In the late 20th century membership grew in various Protestant denominations (notably Evangelical churches), and there were also increasing numbers of Bahāʾīs and Mormons. The highest degrees of income inequality in the mines know if you have suggestions to this... Lake Poopó used to be the country’s second largest, after President Morales took office in,. 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