I’m Sandra Bass. After the formations of the Tea Party by 2012, that optimism had really declined and race relations were seen as becoming very polarized. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! DACA recipient Luis Alejandro Liang, the first student profiled in the brand new Berkeley Haas first-person series called “Haas Voices,” talks about his road to UC Berkeley — from being raised in Sinaloa, Mexico, to his move at age 14 to Orange County with his mother and sisters to a tour of UC campuses as a community college student where he fell in love with Berkeley. Berkeley County’s sales tax is 8% effective May 1, 2009. Thank you so much. We got several questions in the chat related to what should or would reparations look like, and you’ve touched on that a little bit, so part could be cash payments. Haas Institute Director john a. powell discusses why these policies will work in slowing the growth in inequality. Supreme Court (803)734-1080 Court of Appeals (803)734-1890 Court Admin (803)734-1800 Disciplinary Counsel (803)734-2038 Human Resources (803)734-1970 Fiscal Services (803)734-0590 Technical Support (803)734-1799 Haley Pacheco I look at Rosewood and Tulsa in my work because there are so many similarities, then it becomes striking that the outcomes were different. If we look at textbooks in places like Texas, for example, you wouldn’t recognize Tulsa or Rosewood. As he got on the elevator, he apparently tripped and grabbed the arm of a 17-year-old Sarah Page, the white elevator operator, to balance himself. So, a family of four then would be entitled to 40 acres and a mule. This has obviously become a more of an obstacle in recent years around police brutality issues and the immunity, it’s been called qualified immunity that police officers have, but in general it’s very difficult to sue a city or a state and in some cases, you can be given permission to sue. So, one of the things you’ve noted is just how poorly the legal system is equipped to collective redress, and particularly we’re talking about historical harms. 40, a bill to create a study commission that would issue recommendations in terms of African American reparations. Dominic S. Orsini, Martinsburg City Police It obviously had been against the law for most of them to be taught to be read and write, so farming was the mode of making a living. However, an attorney cannot guarantee success of an H-1B application nor can an attorney obtain an H-1B for an unqualified person. An update from Chancellor Christ on two UC... Dacher Keltner on the science of awe and... Binary stars are all around us, new map of solar... COVID-19 and the media: The role of journalism in a global pandemic, Subscribe to The Berkeleyan, our weekly email newsletter, The latest information on how UC Berkeley is responding to coronavirus. John Hope Franklin was raised around Tulsa, the Dean of Black historians, and only very late in his career discussed Tulsa at all, so there’s this kind of erasure of history that Baldwin is hinting at. Other questions about social welfare programs, but I really like this question of, “What would it look like for, or what would enable Black Americans to feel acknowledged, redressed, and with closure?”. Word spreads and people start coming in from outside that there’s a race riot going on and it simply spins out of control from there. Berkeley’s hands are not clean on this, if you want to talk a little bit about that later. There was racial violence in 25 cities in the United States, Chicago being the most prominent. After the success of pushing for civil and political rights in the ’64 Civil Rights Act, the ’65 Voting Rights Act, the Urban League puts forth a martial plan for the Negro saying, “We have to be concerned about economics as well,” as Ella Baker said, “What’s the use of being able to sit at a lunch counter if you don’t have the money to buy a hamburger?” And so, the Urban League is saying, “We could at least do as much for African Americans as we did for those that were displaced by World War II. For a more comprehensive search, be … Dutch and French governments, after study commissions, have agreed to repatriate stolen art back to Africa. Listed here are fellowship programs reviewed by Career Center counselors. The basic point is that this shift in public opinion to the left then has prepared more favorable ground for reparations claims, and we see that reflected in some recent successes in reparations. One of the people that grew up in the Marcus Garvey Organization was a woman called Audley Moore and she would later develop one of the mid-20th-century Black reparations groups that would take the claim for reparations to the UN among others in 1950. Martinsburg, WV 25401 He had to go to a colored restroom, it was in this building. Both sides have to be sort of a part of this, it can’t be forced on something. Sandra Bass: Oh, I’m sorry, I just want to do a quick time check. It’s not all about cash payments; it’s about education, it’s about restoring history and capturing history as in the American History and Culture Museum, it’s about repatriation of art. It was suggested that each of the 4 million slaves should be entitled to 10 acres of confiscated or abandoned confederate land and that the many mules that had been working in the Civil War be leased out or loaned to those to help to the new freed men to help them work this land. Then, we get to the contemporary period. But you see this shift in public opinion and just to cite a few things, the Kaiser CNN poll, a recent Kaiser CNN poll, a few years ago, found that racial tensions were worse today than there were 20 years ago. On May 30th, 1921, Dick Rowland, a bootblack, took the elevator to the colored restroom in the office building near the shine parlor where he worked. Berkeley County West Virginia, - Applications & Downloads - Tax Records - GIS Maps, - Open Bid Announcements There simply wasn’t the transportation available, even if you can find the space. So let me briefly talk about this, I want to try to talk for maybe 30 or 35 minutes right now, and then leave you time to ask some questions and for me to try to answer them. This is from James Baldwin: “People who imagine that history flatters them (as it does indeed, since they wrote it) are impaled on their history like a butterfly on a pin and become incapable of seeing or changing themselves or the world. So, we can see something like in the bail bond system, which is on the ballots in California today. Sandra Bass: Dr. Henry can I interrupt you for just one second? Consequently, Representative John Conyers of Detroit introduces H.R. But I see this in cycles that sort of cover generations and reparations doesn’t mean the same thing, or isn’t the things emphasized in certain periods as in other periods. I’m Sandra Bass. Shifting public opinion. Suite 1100 Fax: 304-263-6092, Prosecuting Attorney Related Links. - Ordinances • The Courthouse will be closed to all unscheduled public entry. The United States had provided pensions for Civil War veterans, actually on very generous terms. There was one exception to that, there were enclaves of Blacks living in city states and they were actually, one proposal that was being considered was a sort of separate city state around Salinas and the Monterey Bay for Blacks. Some Blacks did go to Liberia and other places but the vast majority wanted to make a living in the areas and that they knew best, through the methods they knew best, which was farming. The internment of Japanese Americans had not been talked about by the generation, by the parents. The press played a very negative role, the white press in the cases of Rosewood and Tulsa, particularly Tulsa. Sandra Bass: Great. I’m the Associate Dean of Students and Director of the Public Service Center at UC Berkeley, and welcome to the latest offering of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute series on America’s Unfinished Work with Professor Emeritus Charles Henry. Many of the people that had been put in these camps had felt ashamed about it and that was why they didn’t talk about it, and so there was a kind of catharsis that was a result of this process of talking about this history. What are some of the factors? MARTINSBURG, W.Va. — It was a record-breaking year for the Berkeley County Solid Waste Authority’s recycling program with 136,000 vehicles visiting the three drop-off sites for a … Certainly, if you look at our history, if you look at mainstream news and we look at eight of our presidents before the Civil War, they were slave owners. The similarities include, one: the time that they occurred. As a crowd of neighbors gathered around her, the weeping and hysterical white housewife claimed that a “Nigger” had attacked her. This has been wonderful, it’s so appreciative of Professor Henry for sharing his time with us today, and thank you for joining us for this latest offering in the America’s Unfinished Work series with OLLI. In the case of Berkeley, look at LeConte Hall and who it’s named after, for example. You do not have to apply for this reduction. Berkeley Police Department located John Fizer, a previously missing person at risk, safe in Berkeley on Thursday, according to an update to a previous Nixle alert. In fact, Professor Henry mentions in his book that a somewhat flippant remark about the futility of pursuing reparations from a prominent African American political insider, was one of the reasons he wrote his book. Fast forward quickly to the turn of the century. Charles Henry: Yeah, I’m going to give you the triggering incident in both cases. Kate B. Harding He also served as an office director in the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor in the U.S. Department of State during the Clinton Administration. Then, finally in 1969, James Forman, the former leader of CORE, puts forth what he calls a Black Manifesto asking for $500 million from America’s churches, saying churches have been the most segregated institutions in the United States and they need to live up to their moral and ethical preachings by devoting some of their assets to African Americans. There are actions around universities so if you’re a college student, look at your university’s history, look how it’s benefited or not. Many had been very silent about this, and their kids and grandkids knew very little about it. Christopher T. Engle, of Bunker Hill, West Virginia, was sentenced today to 41 months of incarceration for wire fraud, U.S. Attorney Bill Powell announced. Okay, I’m not doing well, so I’m not going to elaborate on the details on this, other than to say Rosewood’s claim for reparations was successful, Tulsa’s was not. Street Name Search: Please feel free to use our Street Name Search function to help determine whether a proposed road name has already been used or placed on reserve in Berkeley County. Martin Luther King said that Blacks and whites had different definitions of integration, and for whites it simply meant desegregation, the absence of harm. Please check the website for any upcoming events, and again, thanks for joining us and have a wonderful day. An African American descendant of slaves myself, this talk is particularly close to my heart for a couple of reasons. Let me read you a quote from my favorite author first, in regard to the erasure for history, and then I’ll briefly talk about the cases. I’m also thrilled to be here because Professor Henry has been a mentor of mine since I was a graduate student at Cal, and what I remembered in meeting him for the first time was his intellectual generosity, warmth and encouragement. In all honesty, I’ve often doubted that we as a country would get to the point where reparations to African Americans could be part of our mainstream conversation. We’ll have time for Q&A at the end, I’ll be pulling those questions out and sharing them with Professor Henry. They were in the New York Times, the Black press wrote about them, as well as the white press. That once we reach that, acknowledge that, then we can have some form of redress and then there has to be some closure on both sides. Incidentally, there’s a large number of victims of forced sterilizations in California, as well. Yeah, but we’ve been doing it at the national level for 30 years, and California legislature is more liberal than the state legislature at this point because we don’t have a Senate like we do in Washington, and so maybe California can be a model for how this can be done, so let’s not put all our eggs in one basket. So, there’s a kind of domino effect flowing from the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 and we have action on the local level, as well. There was no sophisticated lobby in the case of Tulsa, there was in the case of Rosewood, in that they were successful in getting a white lawyer who was a lobbyist, who agreed to take on the Rosewood case and was skillful in taking it through the state legislature, and there was a dispute mechanism to handle a claim like this in the case of the Florida legislature. We see upward mobility in the white community, but we see downward mobility in the Black community. In Florida, Rosewood was not the worst case, there were worse cases of Black massacres and violence and lynchings in the areas around Rosewood. I think that’s a kind of necessary conversation to get to the point where you’re talking about any kind of redress, because as long as we’re arguing different histories and not coming together as a community and seeing this as part of our whole history, then we’re not going to reach a point where we can actually have any meaningful redress. It was assumed to be taken care of, or other things would solve that problem. Berkeley Count Sheriff Department Starting Monday, January 11, the Berkeley County Courthouse will operate on a modified schedule until further order from the Supreme Court. The place, there was resistance, both were prosperous communities, Tulsa especially. Sandra Bass: Right. It is imperative that parents and older students return calls from the County health officials to ensure they can do adequate contact tracing and case investigation to stop the spread in our community. By the time Fannie’s husband, James, arrived back home from his job of oiling machinery at the Sawmill, county sheriff Rob Walker was already there and a posse was forming. This is the place in which it seems to me most white Americans find themselves: impaled. I’ll tell you, as an African American woman in graduate school in the ’90s in a discipline that has struggled with diversity and inclusion, having such a thoughtful and supportive ally was the difference between finishing my program and choosing to walk away. It had simply been erased from history. You can write to your congressperson or your state legislator, but look around in your community to see what are people studying in terms of public school books. In the most immediate post-Civil War period, it’s land. So, you’re not actually giving redress to the person who is harmed, which means that with regards to national reparations, we’re beholden to a political context. I’m just giving you sort of a sample of that, but the Pew Research Group has polls if you’re interested in looking at the Pew polls, a lot of them deal with race. So, these can be seen as a type of economic reparations. So, you have on the one hand, the demands of Black nationalist organizations, you also have demands from civil rights leaders. Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. Just in the last few weeks, Gov. And I’ve just pulled these out of newspapers over the last couple of years, including some just in the last month or two. All visitors, litigants and attorneys will be permitted only to enter by appointment or scheduled hearing. www.wvstatepolice.com. Charles Henry: I’m going to read a paragraph and that’s the best I can do. Kevin Watson Berkeley Courthouse NOTICE: Effective April 10, 2017, the Probate Examiners' phone hours have been suspended until further notice. One more word about the time because I won’t have time later to really get into it and that is, this is a time of particular violence in the United States in the post-World War I era, 1919 has been called the Red Summer. West Virginia State Police If the government can provide reparations for Japanese Americans, it needs to seriously look at reparations for African Americans.”. Gallup reported in the last year to a 20% rise in liberalism among white Democrats. So, let’s have a Marshall plan for the Negro.”. So, we see people talking about then some sort of fund that would be used to help Blacks gain assets to close this wealth gap and I could talk further on that, but there are other questions. So, that’s sort of the name of the game at the electoral level, although a question I got when we passed it in California was somebody said, “Well, isn’t it kind of superfluous to do this in California because we’re doing it on the national level?”. The Black Panther party, which adopts a 10-point program also, in some ways mirroring what the Black Muslim said, but in a secular way in what they consider a more progressive way, in that it’s not calling for separate land from whites, but it’s calling for land, housing, jobs, food, but land is a part of the Panther demands. Sandra Bass: Good morning, everyone. It didn’t include a positive vision of a multicultural, equal and just society of people living together. I kind of date the contemporary period from 1989, there were things going on all throughout these periods but they’re kind of signal events like the end of the Civil War, like the development of pension movement, like the Civil Rights Movement, and I think we can kind of date the contemporary period from 1989. Almost three years to the date since Occupy Wall Street first raised the consciousness of Americans about the wide economic They are dimly or vividly aware that the history they have fed themselves is mainly a lie, but they do not know how to release themselves from it and they suffer enormously from the resulting personal incoherence.”. There’s been a popular Hollywood movie made about Rosewood, and Tulsa has recently, in the last few years, become a better and better-known case. There were lawsuits also in Rosewood and there’s an erasure from history that I wanted to talk about. Sheriff Walker believed the likely culprit was a Black convict, Jesse Hunter, who had escaped from a county road gang the day before.”. So, let me move then to a comparison of Rosewood and Tulsa because what I find interesting, particularly from the political standpoint, is looking at movements that are successful versus those that are not successful and what are the factors that contribute to that the success or the failure. As they’re leaving, a white tries to disarm a Black and gets shot and all hell breaks loose. The first thing to note is that both Rosewood and Tulsa are cases in which legal redress was tried and failed, and it was a legislative strategy that was successful. The ground has shifted some since this last period. Elizabeth "Liz" Hott And we saw, in the last several months, presidential candidate support for reparations, from Marianne Williams saying, “I’ll pay the money now,” to Joe Biden saying, “Oh, well, I think this is something that we could study.” So, the consequence of that is, and I won’t talk about it and you’ve probably seen it, is the California Commission Bill that’s just been signed by the governor. There was serious talk of giving Confederate Army veterans pensions and so that slaves, there are about 1.9 million at the turn of the century, ex-slaves who are getting old, who are having medical issues as many seniors do, were wondering, “Well, where’s our pension? 2120 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way A very significant case, because it relates to the Black Lives Matter movement and others, is that the Chicago City Council agreed to pay reparations to victims of police torture in a particular precinct in Chicago. Now, that seems pretty low, but it was significantly lower before, that includes African Americans, who a vast majority of favor, so that raises it some. So, let me briefly talk about those cases. So, even today, we’re finding the consequences of Tulsa. A kind of shorthand definition for reparations would be a process that includes acknowledgment, redress and closure, and I think one of the ways I’ve tried to, in this very brief time, encompass a long history of efforts in this regard is the first slide that we have up here, reparations cycles. This appealed to Cuban Americans who had their land confiscated by Fidel Castro and the Cuban government, and even though most of them were conservative Republicans, they supported the reparations claim of Rosewood and that was a key in getting through the state legislature. Charles Henry: Yeah. Would that be something helpful for us in this country? Charles Henry: Yeah. So, we have to look at what our students are being taught in their schools and what’s happening locally, in terms of police brutality or homelessness or segregation in terms of housing, who’s living next to you? Oxford and Glasgow universities have paid reparations to people in the Caribbean for their role in the slave trade and offered scholarships and research money on reparations, as have a number, as Dr. Bass has mentioned, of American universities. They said that they wanted land. Let me just read a paragraph about each case and then talk about the outcomes. There have … Maybe I should have done that first, but let me finish this line and then give you the particulars. So we’ve only got a couple of minutes left. Engle, age 30, was the co-owner of Hearts2Heros, a for-profit entity that allegedly was meant to support the military by creating and sending care packages to deployed service members. If they were there at all, it would be a totally different perspective, it was like if you read the white newspapers after Tulsa and the Black newspapers, it was like people were in two different universes. The article was prompted by a book that was published in 1975, called Ecotopia by Ernest Callenbach, and some of you watching might be old enough to remember that book, or even read that book. Shannon F. Kiser, Legal Assistants I think this is, when we talk about the buildup of microaggressions and that kind of thing, it would be a cathartic thing for people to talk about their experiences in this country on both sides of the issue. We have the Black Muslims, which become popular and the Black Muslims incidentally have connections to the Garvey Organization as well through Elijah Muhammad, who had been associated with the Garvey movement, but they become popular with Malcolm X becoming the lead minister, and of course they have a 10-point program, a major plank of that program asks for land in the South that will be developed as a Black nation in the South. Probably the most famous land claim, although there were other presentations from Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens and others, but people remember 40 acres and a mule, and indeed that was in Stevens’ initial proposal to the House of Representatives. This was not the only time that people had complaints against the state, and the state had a mechanism with a kind of Ombudsperson. The final thing is a list for further reading. I saw a piece, a brief snippet, in the San Francisco Chronicle just yesterday on Tulsa, saying they had found 10 bodies in an unmarked grave in a cemetery in Tulsa that they think were people who had been killed during the Tulsa Massacre of 1921, and those bodies had not been counted in that. That conference occurred one week before 9/11, and after 9/11 many, many issues were off the agenda and terrorism became the issue. And so, we see kind of less reparations activity up until 2012, we begin to see a shift in public opinion in the United States and there are lots of polls I could cite. Garrett Robertson But the remarkable figure is about a quarter of the American population today can trace their ancestry back to somebody who got some land through the Homestead Act. As we know, the most famous one being in South Africa, but there’s been local ones here in the U.S. and others around the world. It’s really striking, in the case of Tulsa, that one of America’s most prominent historians, Daniel Boorstin, who was also the Librarian of Congress at one point, was raised in Tulsa and never wrote a word about Tulsa. And so, we’ve got action both at this level, the California level, and at the national level electorally. He received his doctorate in political science from the University of Chicago and joined Berkeley in 1981. When they had hearings on this, it kind of opened up this pent-up emotion and these feelings. With that, I’ll share a little bit about Professor Henry, we’ll turn it over to him for his talk and then what we’d like you to do is to put your questions in the chat. It’s always interesting to me that a term that means redress, that means reconciliation, reparations, an attempt to heal has been such a divisive issue. What do you think is the strength and weaknesses of that approach? Blacks were largely excluded from that, I think 1.6 million whites benefit from this, 4,000 Blacks got land. The Homestead Acts give about, I think it’s 240-some million acres to whites to settle, free land if you settle on it and develop it, to white Americans. Case counts and … Fellowships for Undergraduates and Recent Graduates. 40 and most of the presidential candidates ��� Cory Booker, Kamala Harris, Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, those in the Senate ��� had signed on as co-sponsors of that legislation. Blacks escaping are put in internment camps, 4,000 to 6,000, they’re held there for three days. And in terms, kind of the trope is, “I want my check,” kind of thing and why should Tiger Woods get a check and all of that. So obviously I’m going to cut out a lot that I would normally want to talk about if this were a full-length course or a long lecture. Now, that leads me into a discussion of Rosewood and Tulsa because they were very prominent cases in the news. The most famous of these pension associations, which was co-led by a Black woman, Callie House along with Reverend Isaiah Dickerson. By Public Affairs, UC Berkeley| February 12, 2021February 12, 2021. Notes & limitations Overall limitations. Address Information Department. James Lyons Go to the Public Index search page by clicking on the county link. The public demands come from Black nationalists. He was called a special master that would handle these cases and so, it came through that “neutral” sort of mechanism. What guidance would you give for groups who are working in that space? Ambulance Authority. It is automatically shown on your tax bill. Phone: 304-264-1971 Well, I think that’s why people have talked about sort of having assets which are intergenerational wealth that you can pass along. Re in their camps, their homes are looted and burned be able to work and... 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